Картофель под соломой: мнение агрономов  See details »

 
Video subtitles:
  • 00:00: Hello and prosper Potato growers are divided into those who grew potatoes under straw and those who did not grow but have an opinion Among those who grew one already many years practice and enjoy the results and others once tried to meet as is usual with difficulties and branded method without the right to amnesty We will present the point of view of agronomists tell you about your experience and share unexpected conclusions and valuable recommendations
  • 00:31: Immediately warn you to grow potatoes under common straw in narrow circles I did not like the method. and together we will try to figure out where is the light of truth and where darkness of delusions A common method of growing potatoes under the straw suggests spreading tubers according to prepared soil and a straw shelter layer of 2040 centimeters
  • 01:01: Eyewitnesses talk about the absence of weeds late blight and beetles Potatoes are cleaned easily and joyfully and the harvest is fabulous An alternative opinion is the inaccessibility Straw labor intensity works invasion of mice and slugs and also in the fact that this nonsense is not humanly and it is necessary to do as all people My first straw story ended having barely begun
  • 01:31: We had to learn quickly with colleagues Run a site and grow a lot potato of high reproduction on sale And we wanted to work lesson lazy people less Therefore, covered with light legends, the straw method attracted and beckoned like a bully to a decent girl Perfect straw in neat rolls was only 20 kilometers and finally can be cheap However, a sober calculation of the surface integral showed that we need a whole Kamaz Kamaz
  • 02:03: and at the cost of diesel fuel and appetite Kamaza the whole enterprise would have gone into the deepest minus Everyone knows me as a person who is incredibly lucky what a happy and yes passed 4 years and I completely by accident and unintentionally found straw in a huge amount for free and in the city From such a gift of fate, my inner hamster came in delight and agitation well and a great opportunity
  • 02:33: I grow potatoes under straw as a farmer inquisitive immediately took advantage I did almost a straw classic cut the furrows spread the planting tubers and covered the beginning with a layer of centimeters 20 I'm waiting. And nothing sprouts Next potatoes relatives went up her already with the songs have bored me with giggles and from the straw only waiting for something
  • 03:03: in the whole beautiful but here and now nifiga not understandable By the end of the 3rd week I began to ring uneasily their familiar masters of sports by straw potato And they say yes relax 3 weeks for straw shoots this is not the time and what is laughing at you so do you feel a sense of self importance humility pacification and all that Then everything went up and even grew
  • 03:33: and the harvest was all right but I was nervous of course Everyone knows that for a good harvest potatoes require nitre of nitrate double superphosphate and other complex mineral fertilizers But let's see together: we have tops and roots in our case, tops and tubers Nutrients are distributed both there and there A lot of nitrogen is accumulated in the tops
  • 04:03: phosphorus potassium and other macro and microelements And all these substances connected in natural compounds conditionally speaking edible for the plant And the most important plant remains contain a large number of carbon compounds which is necessary for the formation of starch amino acids of vitamins of enzymes and other useful carbohydrates for which we grow potatoes It turns out the tops are the most correct
  • 04:34: full and balanced fertilizer for potatoes However, there is the problem of the plant at the end of the season you have all blackened and withered from late blight It is certainly impossible to fertilize such And what if you use plant residues other plants? Leaves of trees hay peat sawdust they also contain natural compounds nitrogen phosphorus and potassium plus a huge amount of carbon But where to get hay and leaves in quantities
  • 05:04: which are needed to fertilize potatoes? Here is the time to remember about the straw And although it is at first glance not quite suitable for potato fertilization but in a minute we'll see what is the secret In the distant 2005, I, together with potato farmers lucky to attend a seminar of the legendary agronomist of academician Nikolai Kondratyevich Shikuly Now the academician has optimistically started
  • 05:34: I will tell you how to grow potatoes without the use of mineral fertilizers To which the audience hooted together: Yes, they are right now they all use you better tell what and how to use Meanwhile Academician Shikula is bright his memory really did secret of stubble use as a fertilizer. Moreover he developed a technological map for different cultures for all regions of Ukraine In the agricultural world
  • 06:05: potatoes are grown usually after cereals So, when harvesting these very grains The combine harvester is installed so that the stubble remains strictly defined height, and this height is determined soil condition and other calculations for future potatoes And God forbid who to burn this stubble In winter, stubble retards snow In the spring it is debated and in it all they plant potatoes This approach allows
  • 06:36: reduce spending on mineral fertilizers and cunning Poles, for example, already do not use them at all because they are populated with straw agronomically useful microorganisms and high biological soil activity provides Poles not only the yield of potatoes in 400 and even 600 c / ha but also a complete absence of late blight and even beetles Again, saving on protection means well, and diesel, respectively, and for the poteless kartoshechku
  • 07:07: cunning Poles are tearing off pompous Germans very different money Biologization of agriculture is not a whim some strange or greedy people but an objective necessity After all, the fertility of the soil that formed the whole biological history of the Earth was largely spent for the last 100 years That's why USA Canada and after them Europe actively switch to organic methods
  • 07:37: farming By the beginning of the 21st century it was found that the content of humus in the legendary Ukrainian chernozems decreased by half And mineral fertilizers in the first place do not compensate for this decline in the second place require competent and accurate treatment and the most sad is their today's cost And we are not yet talking about environmental aspects Therefore, as a fertilizer Straw and other plant residues are increasingly used It is well known that with the right approach
  • 08:08: The introduction of 1 ton of straw leads to the formation of from one hundred to two hundred kilograms of humus After all, straw is essentially free and the share of organic matter in it is an average of 80% Straw contains potassium calcium phosphorus magnesium sulfur manganese zinc copper boron molybdenum and other mineral elements There are some nuances with nitrogen But they require special attention in the industrial method of agriculture
  • 08:38: A straw of legumes has no nitrogen complications generally does not cause If you use straw when growing potatoes in relatively small areas with the use of biological products, the effect is obtained as from manure is even better After all, what is manure in essence? These are plant remnants and enriched with useful microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal Today we can get the same effect without the participation of a cow or a pig
  • 09:09: It is important to understand that the straw becomes excellent organic fertilizer under the influence of microorganisms They are tirelessly and eagerly engaged in transformation of cellulose and lignins in scientific mineralization and humification And if we specifically populate the straw agronomically useful microorganisms then turning straw into a high-value fertilizer will quickly and without negative side effects
  • 09:40: phenomena We do not even need to smell and bury straw Aboriginal (well, that is, living right here in the soil) and specially made by us The microorganisms perfectly and quickly crumble That's why we can calmly to lay straws or beveled siderates just to the ground And if To practice such a fertilizer every year is a biological Soil activity increases so much then only have time to feed this whole fowl and she to us for it
  • 10:12: Fat humus is a great harvest and just a joy. Believe agrarian potato anyway Will it be filled with earth or peat or hay or straw or even cut paper I, for example, covered the potatoes with moss and received an excellent result The same effect will give peat and any other organic And I will immediately be asked how did you plant the potatoes?
  • 10:43: This is an absolutely important question we will discuss in a minute and now our agronomist The sportswoman and simply beauty Julia Petrovna tell about biopreparations that make life easier we are incalculable land Trichodermine is a preparation based on microscopic a mushroom called Trichoderma Trichoderma is saprophytic transforms organic substances
  • 11:13: inorganic actively decomposing plant residues If you shed a solution of Trichodermin straw in a couple of weeks you will notice that the lower layers (which are not dried up and not illuminated by the sun) disintegrate as after a chopper This means that his work on the destruction of straw and soil enrichment with macro and microelements Trichoderma performs regularly In addition, Trichoderma suppress the development of such pathogens as a phytophthora, powdery mildew
  • 11:43: as well as mushrooms that cause scab Add to dignity the fact that Trichoderma produces a large number of antibiotics phytohormones of vitamins and enzymes and all this benefits not only potatoes but also to all other cultures It is interesting that under a layer of straw and other organics of Trichoderma But the question in this case is about the terms of 6-8 months and sometimes several years If we need a result during the season
  • 12:14: then the use of Trichodermin becomes very beneficial Phytodocuser and Phytosporin have a similar effect They are produced on the basis of a bacterium known to us under the name a bacillus But on the interaction with the straw Trichodermine is more effective If we return to the fact that the straw can cause nitrogen starvation this trouble is really easy to overcome It is necessary to call for help bacteria able to assimilate the molecular nitrogen of the atmosphere which we know from school in air more than 70% In addition, many microorganisms in the process of life release phosphorus potassium and other elements directly from soil minerals It is necessary to introduce these microorganisms and create favorable
  • 12:44: conditions ensure food (then there is organic) humidity and darkness This is what we do when we cover the soil straw and other plant residues Strengthen hundreds of times the process of biologization our soil is easy to shed straw solution of Emochka or Baikal These are agronomically useful microorganisms that allow you to activate all the important effects for us for a very short time time and all this very cheap and with a growing result compared with degradation from literally of gold mineral fertilizers and agrochemistry Well and one more fertilizer which in a complex with straw and another organic gives just fantastic result of bocashi Bokashi is in our case bran fermented by useful microorganisms In fact, this small package concentrate a huge pile of manure Bocashi are introduced when potatoes are planted in holes or furrows or scatter on the ground and from the top hide with straw or just fall asleep soil Potato potato breeders and potato growers can say: of course plant 10 tubers in this way you can but if we plant 20 or 50 hectare
  • 13:14: this is how much straw is needed how much it costs and how much with this all the work We do not have time We are better at doing such nonsense as a human being under the tractor Firstly, I do not suggest at all hand workers and tractor to fill straw 100 hectares Large areas use other methods I just talked about Academician Shikula and Stubble review and re-listen Workers do not know the hands and the tractor that their very hard work with the use of force of fire and the pair are called the ridiculous yield of their potatoes which in its turn is caused by a lack of understanding about the what and how do they do I will repeat in another way: That at low productivity get the necessary amount of potatoes need a large area and a large area requires very great work
  • 13:44: and at least a small but tractor So what about growing potatoes in a human way? they are wrong. this is when you plant relatively little but you get a lot This is a result worthy of man And we have a good harvest because we plant a lot of it somehow about another The same about hilling Hilling is agro-food
  • 14:14: which under certain conditions and competent execution can give (or maybe not) yield increase hold tightly in 10% Some write even about 13% and especially optimistic (or unfriendly with mathematics) about as many as 25 Of course for five hundred hectares at a yield of 600 c per square meter, even 10% of the increase it's a lot of money
  • 14:45: But you and I will note that these 10% on several hundred square meters? Is it not easier to plant instead of hilling for every 10 rows 11d and get the same 10% increase? But about hilling will be a separate spot right now I'll say The addition of straw to the humming effect does not give yes, it is not needed It's time to tell why I did not like it
  • 15:32: grow potatoes under straw so as is customary in narrow circles potato growers and where exactly I moved in growing potatoes taking into account the straw experience Personally, I did not like it in the first place that the potato from under the straw painfully long rises It's not that I'm just impatient, I'm such a natural scientist that I can plant one-eyed pieces tubers So here are many of these pieces
  • 16:02: there was not enough strength to grow out of the straw and the cuttings from the shoots have completely disappeared from me The second thing I did not like was very uncomfortable tinkering with straw especially put during the season if it is long straw It would be crushed and the problem solved but to drive straw through a chopper it's still some strange and superfluous in my opinion work So now I pre-lay the straw in the aisles
  • 16:33: A thick layer up to half a meter and I spill it with Trichodermine On it all go and the trichoderma actively eats away the straw and pretty soon the long stems begin, as it were, crush themselves There are truly powerful specialized biopreparations for the destruction of straw but about them a separate conversation In the spring in due time I make furrows and lay out the tubers pieces and sprouted cuttings of sprouts
  • 17:04: at the appropriate interval everything is as usual On the planting of potatoes, I have a separate A detailed funny movie here is wasting time on I will not So spread out and a little sprinkled on top land Everything will be clear right now. After planting row spacing I wake up with bocashi and I cover with a layer of centimeters to 10 thatch with moss leaves that is that and I hide I take from the tracks where she already podtruhla
  • 17:34: under the influence of Trichodermin If you are a fan of hilling, wait for the sprouts knead and then blanch the aisles If the landing is done in the summer (and I practice and summer planting potatoes), then the entire bed is covered first a thin layer of just two straws purely for the sake of shading and after the shoots fall straw all the rows a centimeters 20 shoots on a smaller head and so around
  • 18:05: Weeding is unnecessary just enough sometimes undergo a particularly persistent Soot well, and add extra sites with active couch About bluetooth, you can forget firstly the mulch mechanically prevents spores from spit phytophthora secondly, as we have already found out trichoderma and hay bacillus themselves are planted under straw and do not allow pathogens to clear out Beetles of such potato growing also shun away just in case to normal neighbors
  • 18:36: The more so because our potato eats grows full-bodied and strong for beetles not tasty and not attractive Another thing the mouse and slugs on which complain very much many According to my observations, these are optional or temporary difficulties When you persistently practice organic methods for 23 seasons mouse go away and slugs themselves somewhere they disappear Although I had no problems with them on any site
  • 19:06: Initially, there were mice and slugs but for some reason there were no problems with them But if insidious slugs still seize and insatiable mice all eat then you have 3 options The first is stubborn not to give up until they surrender Lack they can be stronger Th there The second actively fighting is the methods of means and even drugs
  • 19:37: The disadvantage is worth the money and the pogans will then go themselves and money will be a pity Well, the third is easy to give up straw and other mulch there are other effective (although not so simple and cheap) methods
  • 20:18: I will repeat potatoes in top dressing under a good layer of mulch does not need
  • 20:49: in vigilant defense too If necessary, it makes sense sometimes to water but keep the tubers under the mulch not suffocated from waterlogging In general, everything, and sometimes put straws and even then until the bushes are closed Harvesting is done in the laid for your grade term you also know the properties of your variety? No? And at least the name? It's like in a student's anecdote when on the exam the teacher asked me what my name was and the students
  • 21:22: whispered: In the wall of the bastard Exam we really Every year we give our land and your harvest health is your joy in life it is your estimate So with a mass lodging the tops of this very tops are cut off after a week we raked the straw or what we have there and enjoy the result Now the most important Many hands scratch in the autumn to smell or bury straw
  • 21:53: It's not just useless hellish and frankly bad work this work is directly harmful and even wrecking In the instillation of straw not only is not absolutely no need it actually leads to a loss of 90% of fertilizer use The Earth will not be better, but vice versa only the the structure will perish soil microorganisms kapets in general
  • 22:23: Right after harvesting potatoes Straw straw on the aisles and row with mustard radish oil olive oil mixture or other ciderates If you belong to the most advanced reasonable and agronomically literate part of farmers that is, not only know the names of varieties but also own By force, that is, practicing crop rotation or alternation cultures then it is better to leave the straw level You can additionally spill Emki or Baikal
  • 22:54: and in the new season furrow straight on the furrow groove and plant an onion radish cucumber carrots or whatever you have there according to scheme alternation And be ready with surprise find that the straw is agronomically useful microorganisms in autumn and winter in a significant degrees turned into a hunky compost But if you really want to fall to restore order and to understand the straw that the main pest in your garden is you and
  • 23:26: there is Let's sum up:
  • 24:04: To you to you with your land a climatic zone and your uneasy character It is not necessary to grow potatoes under straw I can not say for myself that I grow potatoes under the straw Under the mulch it yes As mulch there can be not only straw and a variety of other organic and even synthetic Agrarian materials eg Well, certainly planting potatoes that under
  • 24:34: straw that is not released under the tractor from an understanding of plant biology and knowledge of agricultural technology from the correct selection of planting material alternation of fertility and health care cultures land and love in the first place to yourself and your land of course And remember that the trend to use organic fertilizers and biologization of agriculture in general in the world has long been formed I will repeat only in concrete methods for specific conditions
  • 25:04: If you are like me progressive life-loving and lucky naturalist who does not disdain clever books whose earth is like bread and bacon and from pests only neighbor cats yes dogs who dig and trample on beds then I recommend that you plant a new season a dozen experimental rows of potatoes under the straw hay peat moss compost and other organic Just do it humanly in a sense not like all neighbors
  • 25:36: but competently If you are not lucky and the land you have is empty and dense as concrete on which herds gluttonous mice rush and with a gnash of huge slugs and even above the head bass the armada of beetles buzz and the neighbor generally shoots out calmly continue to do as you did just think somehow quietly In the evening you certainly do everything right and humanly
  • 26:07: but I, after all, also did not immediately become like the earth with fat and problems enough but now I smile and enjoy life and maybe you will If you have an inexpensive or even low-cost chunk of straw Do not neglect it Even if you do not plan to grow potatoes under the straw and generally apply mulching straw can be pitted with mullein
  • 26:38: chicken litter or urea spill biopreparations and other uses as fertilizer Energy value of straw she is very high burns So why not turn this fuel in the energy of the fertility of your land? By the way under the straw grow beautifully strawberries and strawberries raspberries and currants tomatoes and peppers even grapes and fruit trees are particularly intense varieties How will you grow potatoes in the future?
  • 27:10: only your However, I strongly recommend that you look closely my video about potato planting usefulness for the sake of and joy for Sponsor of the release online store Biopreparaty buss go to our shops in Kiev and Dnipro we will be mutually pleased Put the husks make reposts and ask in the comments issues All the health of a pleasant harvest and yes will come with us Fertility