Elena Nasedkina

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  • 00:00: Star Media Babich-Design How can that be? What isthis gloom… maybe sorcery?
  • 00:32: A dreamy boy is on thethrone of the Empire. His elder sister is ruling instead of him. She is wise, fair and decisive. The home theatre of Tsar Alexei Mikhaylovitch performs a play about a Byzantineprincess Pulkheria who reigned instead of the minor Emperor. Theentire Tsar’s family held their breath following the performance. Only one of the Princesses didn’tcare for the play.
  • 01:07: She saw her dream come alive on stage. She didn’t know how farthat dream would lead her. THE HOUSE OF ROMANOV. Episode Two When Feodor Alexeyevitchascended the throne in 1676,
  • 01:37: everything was calm and well. The numerous house ofRomanov was prosperous. Tsar Alexei Mikhaylovitch appointedhis elder son Feodor as his successor in advance and even had time tobless him for ruling before his death. There was one thing,though, that worried people. The young Tsar was brought tothe ceremony in a special chair. He couldn’t walk on his own. When he was ascending thethrone, many people didn’t bother
  • 02:25: to lower their voices saying that“he is not long for this world”. Chapter One. Feodor Alexeyevitch Feodor suffered from scurvy from hischildhood. This illness induces anemia, hypodermic hemorrhages and edemas,abnormalities of development of bone and cartilaginous tissues. In the 17th century, people usuallysuccumbed to scurvy during wars or sea campaigns. Scurvy is causedby acute deficit of Vitamin C. However, the first Romanovs hadits rare form of a chronic ailment.
  • 03:00: Because of his disability, Feodorwas forced to spend much time in his chambers, awayfrom merry games. Maybe it was the reason why he developed a gift for sciences. Famous philosopher and poetSimeon Polotsky was his teacher. Feodor was extremelywell-educated for his time. "The Tsar excelled in theology,philosophy, rhetoric, poesy; " he spoke Polish freely, could readOvidius in the original and wrote poems.
  • 03:34: Feodor owned a large musical library,sang well and was a talented composer. However, his main passionwas horse breeding. When Feodor was only three, he wasgiven a real horse instead of a toy one, according to the tradition. The boy was in awe! He took great interestin everything connected with horses.
  • 04:09: A purebred horse had been thebest present for him ever since. His parents hoped that riding wouldstrengthen the Prince’s health. However, the opposite happened. A close friend of his father, a boyarArtamon Matveyev witnessed that accident. “When he was thirteen, hedecided to go to the countryside with his aunts and sisters in thesledge. He was given a hot horse. The future ruler mounted it. Therewere so many people in the sledge
  • 04:45: that the house couldn’t move it.It pranced, threw the rider off and he fell under the sledge. The sledge ran overFeodor Alexeyevitch with all its weightand battered his chest. He is constantly feeling painsin his chest and back now”. Feodor Alexeyevitch has been underthe influence of the Western fashion since his childhood. He wanted todestroy everything that was outdated
  • 05:19: and unnecessary and adopt whatwas new and useful from the West. However, he was effectivelyremoved from power. Because of his illness,he barely left his palace. The Tsar’s relative IvanMiloslavskiy was quick to assume the reins of governmentsupported by his numerous clan. Artamon Matveyev, a brilliantdiplomat and a sworn enemy of the Miloslavskiy kin,was sent to the exile. The nobles’ clans ruledinstead of the young Tsar.
  • 05:50: The Secret Affairs Department and theAccounting Department that used to govern and control the system were dismissed. Ivan Miloslavskiy headed two keydepartments: the Larger Treasure Department and the Ambassadors’ Department– an analogue of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs –plus a few secondary ones. He assigned the rest to the peopleloyal to him, each of whom headed 6-7 departments. Thus,all his people had enough. In the course of a few years, the numberof the departments rose from 42 to 60,
  • 06:24: and the total quantity of thebureaucrats rose from 882 to 2,762. There were a lot of idlers andembezzlers in the state administration, especially among Miloslavskiy’s friends. The state affairsdescended into the chaos. It was love from first sight.
  • 06:57: On Palm Sunday, a solemn cross procession moved along the Red Square. A huge crowdstood there admiring the procession. It was in that crowd the18-year old Feodor saw Her. He differed from the rest –not so much with her beauty but with her proudposture and brave look. The girl was found. Shewas Agaphia Grushetskaya,
  • 07:33: a daughter of a pettynobleman from Smolensk. Being an orphan, she livedin her uncle’s house. Feodor ordered to tell him “to keep his niece safe and notto marry her without an order”. However, Agaphia was not highbornand didn’t suit the Miloslavsikiy kin. Her appearance at the court would ruinall their plans of distribution of powers. In 50 years, historian VasiliyTatischev carried out an investigation
  • 08:03: and got to know the following: “IvanMiloslavskiy decided to slander Agaphia before the Tsar saying that bothshe and her mother were known of some indecencies. However, the girlgot to know about the unfair slander. On the officials’ demandshe stepped forward and said that they shouldn’t doubt her decency.She swore on that with her life”. Reassured with the news, the Tsar willedto secretly see his chosen one again.
  • 08:40: He went for a walk to the VorobyoviHills to pass Agaphia’s house on his way back as if accidentally.Agaphia’s relatives showed the girl to Feodor Alexeyevitchthrough the window. His eyes met. Feodor took a first independentdecision in his life.
  • 09:11: Insidious Miloslavskiywas thrown down the porch. He won’t be receivedat the palace anymore. To keep to the protocol, formalpresentation of the brides was arranged. All participants of the performanceknew the name of the winner before its start – both the groom,the brides and the organizers. However, it was impossibleto overlook an ancient custom. By marrying his Agaphia Feodorobtained all rights of an adult person.
  • 09:45: He “got on in years”. The son of the Quietest, who usedto sign the papers as “Our Quietness” decided to live to thefullest… as if against the fate. His time to rule has come. First of all, Feodor Alexeyevitch issueda decree addressed to the noblemen:
  • 10:15: “All boyars, okolnichy and membersof the Council (Duma) shall arrive at one o’clock and start working”. The first reform hecarried out concerned taxes. One fixed duty for maintainingof the Streltsy (archers) troops replaced numerous charges. One yard was to pay90 moneys a year. That was the price of 72 kgof grain or of 26 kg of beef. Acute deficit of cash forced theTsar to introduce the possibility
  • 10:47: of indirect tax farming that significantlyreplenished the state’s treasury. In 1679-1680 financial year out ofthe revenues of 1,220,367 rubles, customs and bar dutiescomposed 53%, direct taxes – 44% and petty charges – 2,7 %. Next, the populationcensus was carried out. The census of 1678
  • 11:19: came up with a figureof 5,600,000 people. However, it only counted taxpayers andonly on the Russian native territories. Together with the rest of the populationplus foreigners, residents of Siberia and the Kazaks this numberamounted to about 12 million. Russia was the fourthmost-populated country in Europe and the largest in termsof the territory. By the end of the dynasty’s rule the state’s population roseto about 103 mln people.
  • 11:50: "Next the boundary reform started.Old boundaries were checked; " new borders were established betweenthe land lots of all forms of ownership: estates, patrimonies, lands of the PalaceDepartment that belonged to the Tsar and the estates of the monasteries. The military reform was next. Theentire country excluding Siberia and the Volga Region was dividedinto nine military districts. Separate regiments were formedout of soldiers of each district.
  • 12:22: In twenty years, Feodor’s brotherPeter I will use this system as a basis to build a new army for a new state. To fight injustice the PetitionDepartment resumed its work. A person of any rank and positioncould also file a complaint to the Reprisal Chamberand to the Tsar personally. When Feodor got to know thatsome boyars in the chambers compared the Tsar to theGod, he was indignant: “It is indecent to write such words.If anybody dares write like this again,
  • 12:54: he’ll fall out of my favor”. Feodor Alexeyevitch abolished awhole range of physical punishments that involved maiming like cuttingoff hands, feet and dingers. Instead, the violators of thecorresponding articles were sent to Siberia. In such a way, the state keptworkers of full value. Thanks to them, huge empty territories behindthe Urals were developed. Wooden Moscow used to burn every thirtyyears to the ground, “to the coals”.
  • 13:27: It became truly white-stonein Feodor Alexeyevitch’s time. He allotted money for the building ofstone houses from the state treasury with a credit for 10 years. The Tsarwould come to the sites of fire personally and hand the money over. The large part of these medieval mortgages has never been repaid. However, the deed was done – the stone Moscow was built. At last, the so called mestnichestvo, orthe right to inherit posts through seniority was abolished.
  • 13:58: Personal merits and theTsar’s opinion became the main criteria – “the post shall takeone whom the Tsar names”. The Tsar solemnly burned theRanks Books which included data on all noblemen’s kin. The fireconsumed it on the inner porch of his palace in metropolitans’and bishops’ presence.
  • 14:29: From now on, the kin’sresponsibility was in the past, replaced by personal responsibility. Feodor Alexeyevitch was in a hurry. He introduced the Polishfashion at the court. The bravest courtiers evenstarted shaving their beards. He established the PrintingInstitute that later grew into the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academybased on the European principles. He built the Izyum fortification linethat protected the southern border of Russia, opened first statealmshouses in the Russian history
  • 15:03: and was about to reform the courts.It seemed that the sickness retreated. However, Feodor knew thathis days were numbered. And he wanted to do so much… Much time and money weredevoured by a war with the Turks and the Crimean Tatars. Withoutthe experienced diplomat Matveyev who still remained in the exile the Tsarfailed to avoid the military conflict.
  • 15:35: In 1677 a 100-thousandstrong Crimean-Turkish army invaded the territoryof Ukraine. The Russian-Ukrainian army that amounted to about 57thousand people fought it. Despite its almost double superiorityin numbers, the Turks were defeated. In one year a 200-thousandTurkish army was driven back by just 120 thousands Russians.However, the Russian war leaders
  • 16:05: failed to seal the victory. In 1681, the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty between Russia, Turkey and theCrimean Khanate was concluded for the term of 20 years.The Left-Bank Ukraine and Kiev with the neighboring landsremained a part of Russia. The Dnieper River becamea borderline with Turkey. A buffer zone was establishedbetween the Dnieper and the Bug. That war exhausted the Tsar.
  • 16:35: That’s why he was happy toconclude the peace. His health improved. Maybe it happenedbecause his beloved wife was pregnant. They expected their firstborn in summer. However, happiness didn’t last. The Tsarina died in birth.
  • 17:05: The newborn Prince Ilya outlivedhis mother only for six days. Feodor was in despair. This healthdeteriorated with incredible speed. He realized that he needed an heir, so in some time Feodoragreed to marry again. His fianc?e was a 14-yearold Marpha Apraksina. Feodor was sitting during the wedding.
  • 17:39: He didn’t have enoughstrength to stand up. In two months after the wedding, hedied just before his 21st birthday. He didn’t have time to leaveinstructions about his heir. Feodor III could become a realeducated monarch and lead Russia
  • 18:12: to the all-Europeancivilization. He had everything for that – education, willpower,character… except for health. Feodor Alexeyvitch During just five years of FeodorAlexeyevitch’s rule, he created the base for the strongest regulararmy in the world.
  • 18:42: He developed a system of social assistance andlowered the taxes trice. The territory of the countryexpanded for many miles. In an incredibly short term,the capital was rebuilt in stone. He laid the foundations ofthe secular educational system. Feodor has approved theproject of its establishment, but didn’t have time tosign the corresponding order. His death was expected. Some waitedfor it with hope and some with fear. The empty throne opened the wayto the power for two boyar’s clans:
  • 19:13: the Miloslavskiys, relativesof the late Tsarina Maria, and the Naryshkins, the relativesof the living Tsarina Natalia. The question was who would bethe first to run to the throne. The Miloslavskiys’ candidate wasPrince Ivan, a 15-year old boy, half-blind and verycrippled young man. The Naryshkins nominated as their candidate PrincePeter, who was healthy and clever but only 10-year old. In an hour after Feodor’s death theBoyars’ Council with active support of Patriarch Joachimannounced young Peter Alexeyevitch
  • 19:45: to be the Tsar. The Naryshkin’sclan charged into the lead. For all the courtiers it meant thata new leading group of the boyars replaced the previous clan. It ruined all hopes of one person. Chapter Two. Sophia Alekseyevna
  • 20:15: She strived for simple things: to escapethe captivity, to love, to be happy. However, a fate ofan ordinary girl was not for her. She was a Princess. In 1682, nine Princesses lived inthe Tsar’s Palace: Anna, Tatyana, Yevdokiya, Marpha, Sophia, Ekaterina,Maria, Feodosiya and Natalia.
  • 20:50: They couldn’t get marry: the Russianswere too lowly in their status and the foreigners had a different faith.The Princesses spent all their lives in their chambers, in strictisolation from the strangers. They only left the Palace to visitthe church or for important ceremonies. The windows of their carriageswere clothed with thick curtains. If a Princess walked on foot,she was covered from the audience with cloths and large umbrellas.
  • 21:21: The only entertainments that were available for them wereswinging in the palace’s park in summer and sledging in winter, plusperformances of court singers. Their main activities included prayers,participation in divine services and charity. All the Princessesused to finish their education by 10. They studied reading andwriting, math and theology basics. However, Sophia beggedto let her study further together with herbrother Feodor. Their teacher Simeon Polotsky
  • 21:52: remembered her as acurious and clever student. "She studied philosophy, theology,rhetoric, Polish and Latin; " she read a lot andcomposed moralistic plays. The Byzantine Princess Pulkheria whoreigned instead of her underage brother was her favorite heroine. It was what Sophia wanted for herself. Her brother Tsar Feodor Alexeyevitchlistened to her opinion sometimes – but not more. Only his death gaveSophia the long-awaited chance.
  • 22:24: Now, when the second brother,imbecilic Ivan takes the throne, Sophia will become the RussianPulkheria! However, the Naryshkins, relatives of the hated step-mother,were getting in the way. Therefore, Sophia worked out amulti-step combination to come to power. She made the Streltsy the drivingforce of the palace revolution. The Streltsy were an analogof the European musketeers. They made up the basisof the Russian infantry.
  • 22:55: In Moscow there were 26 regiments thattogether amounted to 12,500 people. When free from the service theStreltsy had a right to trade and had some tax privileges. An average strelets used to get 3-5 rubles a month (an equivalentof 30 to 50 thousand rubles in modern money). The wages of anofficer amounted to 15-20 rubles, of a colonel – to 30-60 rubles.However, sometimes the colonels
  • 23:26: took money allocated for theprivate Streltsy for themselves and earned up to 200 rubles. In those times the wageshad been paid unregularly. The colonels took a part of the money.Besides, they often made privates work in their estates like serfs. The Streltsy reachedthe boiling point. Princess Sophia usedthat situation. Her provocateursspread dark rumors about the Naryshkins and instigatedthe Streltsy to the revolt. At that time, the Naryshkins’supporter Artamon Matveyev
  • 23:58: who was an experienced politicianreturned to Moscow from his exile. He could take thesituation under control. Therefore, Sophiastaked her all. She informed the Streltsy thatthe Naryshkins poisoned Tsar Feodor and were going to kill Prince Ivan too. On Patriarch Joachim’s demand, theservants brought Princes Ivan and Peter, both of whom were safe and sound, onthe Red Porch to show to the crowd. However, the Streltsy wanted the bloodof the Naryshkins and their supporters.
  • 24:29: The crowd burst into thePalace. Ivan hid in the corner. Peter clang to ArtamonMatveyev with all this might. However, the Streltsy pushed theyoung Prince aside like a puppy and threw Matveyev from the porchon the spears before the boy’s eyes. One of the witnesses to the reprisal,an employee of the Patriarch’s Service reported: “ArtamonMatveyev was cut to pieces. Boyar Yuri Dolgorukov was draggedbehind the gates and stabbed to death. The next day his dead bodywas cut into small pieces too.
  • 25:03: The Streltsy ravaged the treasury,tore and scattered everything. They walked in the Tsar’schambers impolitely with guns and looked for the boyars to kill.They broke a door to the chambers. They threw a butler from thewindow, and he hanged from a rope”. The massacre lasted for three moredays. The brothers of the Tsarina
  • 25:42: Afanasiy and Ivan Naryshkins werekilled, together with boyar Yazykov, the head of the Streltsy’ DepartmentPrince Mikhaylo Dolgorukiy, the head of the Ambassadors’ DepartmentIvanov, Tsar’s doctor Johann Gutmensh – about 100 people in total. OnMay 19 the Streltsy demanded to be paid their debts for 40 yearsthat amounted to 240 thousand rubles. On May 23, they presented a newultimatum – two Princes, Ivan and Peter should sit on thethrone together.
  • 26:14: At last, on May29 they announced their last demand thatended that multi-step game: Princess Sophia was to become aregent before the Princes turn of age. It was absolutely lawless.
  • 26:44: Just six weeks before on theCathedral Square in the Kremlin Peter wasannounced to be the Tsar, and the Streltsy sworetheir allegiance to him. This woman cleared her path topower with the hands of armed guards. Sophia wasn’t the last to doso in the history of Russia. However, she went downin history as the first. Sophia realized that hersituation was very unstable. She had to cling to thepower that she won.
  • 27:14: First of all, sheordered to repay all the debts to the Streltsy. Some silver tableware fromthe Tsar’s treasury was reminted to that end. Then Sophiagave key posts to people loyal to her. The Ambassadors’ Department (Ministryfor Foreign Affairs) was now headed by her favorite Count VasiliyGolitsin. The Streltsy, the Reiters and the Large Treasure Departments(i.e. Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Finances) wereheaded by Count Ivan Khovanskiy
  • 27:45: nicknamed “Tararuy”what meant “Idle Talker”. Khovanskiy soon realized that theStreltsy were a force to count with and that the government is afraidof them. So he wanted to become a non-crowned ruler and ascendthe throne on the Streltsy’ spears. This is how the “Khovanschina”started – a bloody summer of 1682 when the power in Moscow was takenby Khovanskiy and his Streltsy’ junta. The city was effectivelyoccupied by its own army.
  • 28:15: However, Princess Sophia started thatdangerous game not to share the power with anyone. Thankfully, the Streltsywere not the only military force of the Russian state. It was the noblemen’s turn now. On the holiday ofTransfiguration under the pretext of visiting a cross processionin the Donskoy monastery Sophia Alexeyevna leftthe Kremlin’s walls. Soon her carriage turned from themain road and went to the village
  • 28:48: of Vozdvizhenskoe close tothe Troitse-Sergiyev monastery. There Sophia arrangedher temporary residence. She could sit the dangerout behind its walls. She sent the letters with descriptionof the Streltsy’ revolt to many cities. Now all she had to do was wait forthe arrival of the noblemen’s forces. At the end of the 17th century thenoblemen’s army or the home guard amounted to 14 thousand peopleor 10% of the entire army.
  • 29:21: It consisted of the representativesof the noblemen who received lands for their service. Except forparticipation in military assemblies, they were obliged to come toreviews every year riding a horse, with their own arms andaccompanied by several armed serfs. The main part of the army – 77,764people, or 50%, were regiments of the new order – reitars,dragoons, and hussars.
  • 29:53: They were largelyforeign hirelings. Streltsy’ troops were 35% of the armed forces. The time was working for Sophia. When Khovanskiy realized thathe was beaten, he went to Sophia for the negotiation.He was already expected. The Tsarina’s servants caughthim sleeping in the tavern
  • 30:30: and brought to Sophia to Vozdvizhenskoyeon September 17, on her birthday. He was pushed to his knees before thePrincess, read his sentence on treason and beheaded. Feodor Shaklovitiy, Sophia’s faithfuldog replaced him as the head of the Streltsy’ Department. It was the end of the revolt.
  • 31:11: The Tsarina’s courtreturned to Moscow. The ruler and the senior TsarIvan settled in the Kremlin while Tsarina Natalia and the juniorTsar Peter settled in the country palace in Preobrazhenskoye. The village of Preobrazhenskoye was situated on the bank of the Yauza River andcover the territory of 22 desyatinas (or 24 hectares). It was a woodenpalace built some twenty years ago. It was the farthest countryresidence from the Kremlin. The Kukuy or the German settlementstarted right behind the river.
  • 31:42: In one year, the junior Tsar Petergathered a Toy (Poteshniy) Regiment out of the peasant and courtierboys of Preobrazhenskoye, that will later transform intothe Preobrazhenskiy Regiment – the first guards regimentof the Russian Empire. Fragile balance was achieved. Tsarina Natalia and Peter livedin an out-of-the-way place, and Tsarina Sophia withIvan – in the Kremlin. They only met duringimportant ceremonies. A special double throne was made
  • 32:13: for the joint rulers with a special window. During receptions of the foreign ambassadors the advisorswhispered the answers to the Princes. Despite his young age,Peter was quick-minded. It was much harder for Ivan, though. Like many boys born from MariaMiloslavskaya, Ivan Alexeyevitch was crippled from his childhood with dropsy,scurvy and general weakness. He suffered from mental retardationand had very poor eyesight. He was weak and indifferent.He wasn’t keen on anything
  • 32:44: and expressed nointerest in the power. Sophia was ruling the state taking counsel with her favoriteGolitsin who now had a solemn title of the “Military Leader of the GreatRegiment, the Keeper of the Big Stamps and of the Great StateForeign Affairs”. On Sophia’s approval Golitsin worked out a fantastic forthose times plan of reorganization of the state that was no lessthan 150 years ahead of its time.
  • 33:14: Its main point wasabolishing of serfdom. However, the projectwasn’t realized. In that time such an action could leadto a large-scale noblemen’s revolt. The contemporaries called CountVasiliy Golitsin “the Great”. He was Western-oriented, spokefive foreign languages freely, was a great diplomat, a personof deep knowledge and state mind. Besides, he was the mosthandsome man in Moscow.
  • 33:47: Sophia was deeplyin love with him. She used to writetender letters to him almost every day. “My father, I’mhealthy thanks to your prayers. Don’t stand, my honey. You work toomuch. I don’t know how to pay you for you many services. Nobodywould do that but for you”. Golitsin called for Sophia to keep onwith her brother Feodor’s undertakings.
  • 34:18: However, Sophia didn’t understandtheir meaning and scale to the full. Besides, she couldn’t overcome theresistance of the boyars’ opposition. Still, Sophia opened thefirst in Russia all-estates higher educational establishment– the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy on the basis of the institutefounded by her brother Feodor. Famous Greek scholars became thefirst professors of the Academy. The studies lasted for 12 years and thestudents were divided into 8 classes.
  • 34:49: The main disciplines included theGreek, Latin, grammar, rhetoric, philosophy and theology. TheAcademy was situated on the territory of the Zaikospasskiy monasteryin the Nikolskaya Street. Now it is the building of theRussian State Humanitarian University. The Moscow State University namedafter Lomonosov, the Academy of Sciences and the Moscow ClericalAcademy grew out of it. By 1686, the time has come toprolong the peace treaty with Poland.
  • 35:23: Thanks to the efforts ofChancellor Golitsin and his people after long and tiresome negotiationsthe so called Eternal Peace between Russia and Poland wasconcluded in Moscow on May 6. It is the crown achievement of theforeign policy of the entire 17th century. This peace was veryfavorable for Russia. Russia got the territories Of the Smolensk and Chernigov regions as well as the Left-Bank Ukraine,
  • 35:57: Zaporozhe and Kiev. However, the Eternal Peace had an additional clause. Russia had to enter the Anti-TurkishSacred League of the European States and was obliged to fight theCrimean Khanate, a vassal of Turkey. Golitsin was delaying it as long ashe could, for he was against that war. Despite it, Sophia nominatedhim the commander of the army. She dreamt of loud victory.
  • 36:27: It seemed to her that a small-scalevictorious war would help her strengthenher positions on the throne. Besides, any woman likes to seeher beloved in the shining armor. No sooner had Golitsin left for themilitary campaign than Sophia started sending letters to him: “My light, brother Vasenka,hello, my father, and I wish you long years. I don’thave faith that you’ll return to us. I’ll only believe it when Ihug you in my arms, my light!”
  • 36:59: In May of 1687 a 100-thousandstrong Russian army joined the Don and Zaporozhe Kazaks on the left bankof the Dnieper and went to Perekop. The steppes were burnt, sothe horses had no food. According to the rumors, not the Tatars but the Kazaks burntthe steppes for they didn’t want Russia to gain strength. Thecampaign was cut short.
  • 37:30: The next year the armyamounted to 150 thousand people. On May 15, the only battle tookplace. The Tatars retreated. In five days, the Russianarmy approached Perekop. “I got all your lettersfrom under Perekop. I was walking fromVozdvizhenskoye. I don’t remember how I camehome for I was reading on my way. God knows, my light, howmuch I want to see you”.! However, Golitsin didn’tdare invade the Crimea.
  • 38:02: A dry steppe stretchedright behind Perekop. Golitsin decided to spare massvictims and came back saving the army. The salvation, however, was relative– he lost almost a half of his people, even though there wereno fights with the enemy. The outcomes of the Second CrimeanCampaign were close to disastrous. The history didn’t forgive that defeatto Count Vasilit Vasilyevitch Golitsin. Later, when he was leaving for anexile, he was displeased to get to know
  • 38:36: that the ill-fated failure in thesteppes was one of the main points of his accusation. Golitsin spent tenyears after his campaigns in his estate far away from the court. On the eve of the Crimean catastrophe he suffered the worst blow of all– about his beloved’s betrayal. While Golitsin was fighting, rulerSophia fell in love with another man – a cunning and cynical FeodorLeontyevitch Shaklovitiy.
  • 39:09: To please the ruler Shaklovitiycalled a famous Ukrainian artist Alexander Tarasevitch to Moscow. Hepainted a parade portrait of Sophia with a regal crown anda scepter in her hand, with a two-headed eagleon the background. Sophia liked it. On her order, the portraitwas engraved in copper, printed in many copies andsent to all the European courts. By that time, she called herself“By the Grace of God the Most Pious
  • 39:45: and All-State Princess and GreatCountess, the Ruler of the National Regions and the Heiress and the Proprietress”. Sophia Alexeyevna started to attendofficial ceremonies and receptions of the ambassadors openly instead ofstanding at the back of the throne. The example of the English QueenElizabeth clearly inspired her. As soon as Ivan turned 18, Sophiamarried him to a 20-year old
  • 40:18: Praskovya Saltykova. She countedon an appearance of an heir. In this case, the clan of the Miloslavskiyswould get a dynasty preference. However, five years passedbefore Praskovya got pregnant. The Naryshkins saw the pointtoo. Peter hasn’t even turn 17 when he was quickly married. His motherthe Tsarina found a fiance for him – a 19-year old Yevdokiya Lopukhina.She was neither clever nor educated but healthy. A new race started – whowould be the first to bear a child?
  • 40:53: Ivan and Praskovya had fivedaughters. Three of them lived: Ekaterina, Anna and Praskovya. AnnaIoannovna became the Russian Empress. The daughter of Ekaterina AnnaLeopoldovna became a regent of the underage Ioann VI. He was the last male of the Romanov-Miloslavskiy line. Peter and Yevdokiya had three sons. Only the elderone, Alexei lived.
  • 41:24: His son became Emperor Peter II. He was the last male inthe Romanov-Naryshkin line. On May 30 of 1689, Peter came of age. Being a regent Sophiahad to resign her powers. However, she had no intentions to do so. On her order, Shaklovitiy was spreadingrumors among the Streltsy all summer with an end to carrya coup d’etat. He was gatheringcolonels telling them
  • 41:57: that the Naryshkins wanted tokill Princess Sophia and Tsar Ivan and send the Streltsy toserve in distant fortresses. The colonels were displeasedbut didn’t dare revolt openly. Then Shaklovitiy voiced the wagesfor the participation in the bout: 2 rubles for each private, 10 rublesfor each officer and 100 rubles for each colonel plus a right toplunder the yards of the murdered. The atmosphere intensified. At night of August 8 messengers fromthe Streltsy’ settlement came secretly to Preobrazhenskoy.
  • 42:29: They reported to Peterabout the coup d’etat that was being prepared. Realizing that the time had cometo take the power into his own hands, Peter sent a letterto his brother and joint ruler Ivan: “Our sister Princess Sophia Alexeyevnaowns our state as she wills. Bandits like Fedya Shaklovitiy and hisfriends plan to kill us and our mothers. Now, Tsar Brother, we shall rule ourstate on our own, as we’re adults now.
  • 43:01: Our sister has nothing more to do withit. It is a shame, Tsar, to be adults and to let somebodyelse rule our country”! In the evening, the Princess got areport: Preobrazhenskoye was empty. Tsar Peter, his mother the Tsarinatogether with her pregnant daughter-in-law and the entire court left forthe Troitse-Sergiyev monastery. Two Toy Regiments followed Peter there,together with a Streltsy’ regiment
  • 43:33: under the command ofcolonel Lavrentiy Sukharev. The story repeated itself. However,the time worked against Sophia now. She became a victim. August the 13th. Sophia sent a messengerto Peter – boyar Ivan Troyekurov. He came back with no good news.
  • 44:05: August the 16th.Boyar Peter Prozorovskiy went to Troitsa. The result was the same. August the 20. Sophia begged PatriarchIoakim to go there. The Patriarch didn’t come back. He stayed with Peter. Boyars, officials and even Streltsystarted to leave for Troitsa. August 27.Sophia went to negotiate with her brother on her own. She realized that she shouldn’t do it,
  • 44:36: that her humiliationwould be in vain. However, she couldn’tsimply sit and wait. In ten versts from the Troitse-Sergiyevmonastery in the same village of Vozdvizhenskoye where Khovanskiywas beheaded seven years before boyar Troyekurov who was Sophia’sher ambassador just two weeks before stopped her. He handed herover Peter’s order to go back. August the 31st. Sophia returnedto Moscow. She gathered the Streltsy
  • 45:06: on the square, stood on the porchof her palace and started to cry and complain of her brother. For some reason the effectwas least desirable for her: instead of gettingindignant the Streltsy got scared. Only loyal Shaklovitiystayed by Sophia’s side. September the 4th. All the foreign regiments headed byGeneral Gordon went to Peter’s side. September the 6th. The Streltsy caughttheir boss Shaklovitiy and took him
  • 45:38: to Peter to be judged. September the 7th.Vasiliy Golitsin came to the Troitsa. Peter didn’t receive him andordered to go to exile to Kargopol. September the 8th. Sophia’s name wasofficially excluded from the Tsar’s title. September the 9th. Boyar Troyekurov cameto Sophia and related the Tsar’s will
  • 46:12: to her – settle in the Novodevichiymonastery for the rest of her life. September the 12th. Shaklovitiywas executed on the Big Road close to theTroitskiy monastery. October the 16. The entire Tsar’s court, boyarsand the army came back to Moscow. Peter took the reins of the state. His elder brother andformal joint ruler
  • 46:42: Ivan V participated in all theceremonies while his health allowed. However, by 27 he was verysick. He walked with difficulty and was almost fully blind. He died on February 8, 1696 on the eve of his 30th anniversary. Princess Sophia lived under guard ina tower of the Novodevichiy monastery. She received food from the Tsar’s table.
  • 47:13: Her money allowance amountedto 2,600 rubles a year, like of the rest of the Princesses. Asmall stuff of servants stayed with her – an old nanny, twoaccountants and nine maids. For nine years, Sophia Alexeyevnalived in the monastery quietly. She didn’t manage to become aTsarina. One of her lovers died, another one was far away in exile.However, Sophia refused to give up. She sent letters with her trustedpeople, intrigued, carried out talks…
  • 47:43: In June of 1698 when Peter waslearning to build ships in Holland 4,000 Streltsy killed their colonelsand went from the Velikiye Luki to Moscow to return Sophia to the throne. The governmental forces opposedthem – the Preobrazhenskiy, Semenovskiy, Lefortov and Foreign Regimens, regiments of General Gordon and thenoblemen’s cavalry of General Shein. In 40 versts from Moscow by NoviyJerusalem the Streltsy were defeated.
  • 48:18: The repressions started. General Shein conducted the firstinvestigation. In the course of three days 130 people were hanged, 140 –whipped and sent to the exile, 1,960 transferredto distant towns. In August, Peterreturned to Moscow and resumed the investigation. Another 2000 peoplewere executed, punished whip and stigma - 600.
  • 48:49: Streltsy body hung on the Kremlin’s walls and by theNovidevichiy monastery until February. The Streltsy’ settlementswere plundered. All the 16 regiments that didn’t takepart in the revolt were disbanded. Princess Sophia was forced to takethe veil under the name of Susanna.
  • 49:19: The boyars close to her were interrogatedand sent to distant monasteries. The money allowance of thePrincess was considerably cut, her stuff was changed,the custody strengthened. The bodies of three Streltsy hung bythe window of her cell for five months. A petition addressed to Sophia with arequest for her to become the ruler again was tied to the hand of one of them. She used to invoke fear in the court,she could win favor of any person,
  • 49:57: she could instigate and calm downrevolts, she concluded a brilliant peace and lost a weird war. Shedreamt of becoming a real ruler, like the Byzantine PrincessPulkheria from the performance that captivated her in her youth. She managed to realizeher incredible dream seen on stage. She was the firstRussian Princess to break free from her chambers and experiencewomen’s happiness and unwomanly power.
  • 50:28: However, the time of femalerulers hasn’t come in Russia yet. For 7 years on the throne, she got15 years in the monastery’s cell. She died in 1704 aged 46. Nun Susanna was buriedon the cemetery of the Novodevichiy monastery. None of her relatives attendedthe funerals. Soon the Tsar’s court movedto the shore of the cold sea
  • 50:58: to the city of Sankt-Petersburg. The history of the Russian state ended. It was the beginning of thehistory of the Russian Empire. Hosted by Denis Bespaliyand Lyubov Germanova Created by Marina Bandilenkotogether with Maksim Kalsin Directed by Maksim Bespaliy Director of Photography- Ivan Barkhvart
  • 51:29: Music by Boris Kukoba Art Director – Vladimir Markovitch The End